Certified Translator and Certified Advanced Translator Language Specific Policies
Arabic

NAATI expects candidates for translator certification tests into Arabic to adhere to the rules and standards below.

Test candidates:

  • Are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional Arabic, using Modern Standard Arabic. Lexical and minor differences that have currency in the written Arabic of the candi- date’s country of origin are acceptable. For example, ةرادإ/ةرئاد (department), ةدمع/سيئر ةيدلب (mayor), عورشم يراجت/ةحلصم ةيراجت (business), نييحت/ثيدحت (up-date/up- dating), لوئسم/لوؤسم (official/in charge of)
  • Must write the glottal stop Hamza (ء)diacritically in word initial (when it indicates ةزمه عطق (a disjunctive stop)), eg, نإ/نأ, ةماقإ , word medial, eg, ،فولأم فانئتسا and word final, eg, ،ءوض ئطاش the end of words
  • Are not required to add diacritical marks (ليكشتلا/تاكرحلا), namely, short vowels (-،ُ -،َ -ِ), sukuun (-ْ) or shadda (-ّ), unless the meaning cannot be inferred through the context without diacritization, eg, مُّلعت (learning), مِدختسم/مَدختسم (employee/employer), نطاوَم/نطاوُم (citizen/regions/areas of). Incorrect addition of diacritics will be considered mistakes; and
  • Are required to add نيونتلا) nunation (namely, the vowel diacritics to the endings of nouns or adjectives in the accusative case (نيونت حتفلا), eg, ًءاسم, ًءانب اًمخف
Bangla

Language Standard

The standardised modern colloquial (“Chalit”) form of Bangla i.e., the Promito Bangla should be used in translating. It is the most commonly used colloquial standard of Bangla in formal speaking and writing at the present time in Bangladesh and India. However, if the other conventional literary (“Sadhu”) form of Bangla is used, it must be consistently used throughout the document. Only one form of language must be used in a document.

Interactional Status Markers

Bangla has honorific, ordinary and affectionate/contemptuous forms of verbs and pronouns to indicate the interactional status of individuals involved. These should be used appropriately according to the context of a passage.

Translators should use the appropriate words and phrases used in greetings by individuals from various faiths. Following are some instances:

  1. Us-salam-walikoom is used to greet an individual from Muslim faith. In response that person would say Wa-lie-koom-selam.
  2. Namashkar or Namaste is used to greet an individual from Hinduism or Buddhism faith. In response that person would say the same.
  3. There is also a practice of using Adaab to greet a non-Muslim person. The person would say the same in response.
  4. In addressing individuals from Muslim faith, the titles used are Janab (male) and Janaba/Begum (female), whereas for the individuals from Hindu faith they become Sree/Babu (male) and Sreemati (female).
  5. Forms of verbs and pronouns which mark interactional status should be used appropriately, according to the context of a passage. The inconsistent use of these markers for the same individuals in a passage will be penalised.

Orthography

  1. Bangla words have been developed and enriched by six major sources, viz. Tatsama (= Sanskrit), Tatbhaba (evolved from Sanskrit, Prakrit and Abahatta), Ardha-Tatsama (phonologically modified Tatsama), Perso-Arabic, Indigenous and recently borrowed items (mainly English).
    Of these sources, only Tatsama words should be spelt according to the Sanskrit grammatical rules. Words of other sources use symbols for short vowels (‘i’ দিন, হিম ‘u’ সুর, দুয়ার), long vowels (‘ii’ শীত, বীথি ‘uu’ দূর, দূষিত), syllabic vibrant (‘r’ বর্ণ, স্বর্ণ), sibilants (dental ‘s’ সন্তান, সাধারণ, alveopalatal ‘sh’ ভীষণ, দূষণ, retroflex ‘sh’ স্বাদ, স্বভাব) and nasals (dental ‘n’ বোন, নাম, retroflex ‘n’ বরণ, শ্রাবণ), according to the general convention.
    Recent developments allow some of these items to be spelt in a simpler system, avoiding symbols of long vowels, syllabic ‘r’ and retroflex consonants, which has resulted in two parallel spelling systems. Candidates may choose to use either the traditional spelling system or the simpler system. Its use must be consistent through a passage and inconsistency will not be accepted.
  2. Borrowed words must be transliterated in the simpler spelling system, avoiding long ii, long uu, syllabic r and retroflex consonants (আমদানি, তরকারি).
  3. Consonant conjuncts: Bangla has more than two hundred consonant conjuncts (compound writing symbols) that represent more than one consonant, but modern printing technology has developed a new form of consonant conjuncts by splitting them into recognisable signs for constituent sounds (সঙ্কল্প/সংকল্প, ভক্তি/ভক্‌তি). The new development has resulted in two parallel systems. Candidates may choose to use either the traditional conjunct system or the new system. Their use must be consistent throughout a passage. Any inconsistency will not be accepted.
  4. If an English word/phrase cannot be translated into Bangla or if the use of an English word/phrase is widely accepted in the Bangla language, the English word/phrase can be used in the Bangla text but only in their transliterated forms in Bangla script. It cannot be written in Roman script, e.g., “million”, “monitor”, except for proper names in the source text. These words/symbols can be written in the Roman script when translating them into Bangla.
  5. Justified insertions are acceptable at the discretion of examiners to clarify certain words. For example, the English word “monitor” does not directly translate into Bangla, as there is no Bangla equivalent for it. An insertion is necessary in Bangla to clarify its meaning.
Burmese

Candidates are expected to perform their translation tests electronically using Microsoft Word. “Myanmar Text” script/font must be used. Candidates must use a Myanmar Unicode system keyboard.

Candidates are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional formal written form of Burmese following the current standard spelling, punctuation and accentuation rules as published in a current Burmese Dictionary by the Department of the Myanmar Language Commission, the Ministry of Education of the Union of Myanmar or in any other current Myanmar Dictionaries officially published Candidates are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional formal written form of Burmese following the current standard spelling, punctuation and accentuation rules as published in a current Burmese Dictionary by the Department of the Myanmar Language Commission, the Ministry of Education of the Union of Myanmar or in any other current Myanmar Dictionaries officially published.

Candidates are recommended to use standard Burmese and to prefer Burmese words and terminology over foreign words and terminology. However, Pali words may be used, for example, in a legal domain or in a political context, as long as the Pali words are commonly known to a Burmese speaker and frequently used in the Burmese community.

Candidates should note that when translating names of geographical locations (e.g., Australia) and authorities (e.g., United Nations) from English into Burmese, they should use the established equivalent Burmese terms. However, in instances where no equivalent Burmese terms exist, they are advised to convey the ‘accurate meaning’ or the pronunciation of the term (e.g., Proper English names) into Burmese wherever appropriate and then place the English term in brackets after the translation

Chinese

Modern Standard Chinese can be written in two different forms of scripts: the traditional full-form or the simplified form. Candidates for Certified Translator or Certified Advanced Translator tests will not be expected to know both forms of scripts.

For Chinese into English translator tests, candidates will be given the option of translating from or revising traditional full-form or the simplified form test materials. Once a decision is made the whole traditional full-form or the simplified form test must be completed.
For English into Chinese translator tests, Candidates must consistently use either the traditional full form of characters or the officially approved simplified characters. Candidates are not to mix both traditional and simplified characters and use non-standard variant forms of characters.

In romanising Chinese proper names, Candidates must conform either to the Pinyin or Wade-Giles systems. In transliterating Chinese place-names, use may also be made of what is known as the Post-Office system.

Candidates should note that when translating names of geographical locations (e.g., Sydney) and authorities (e.g., UN) from English into Chinese, they should use the standard equivalent Chinese terms. However, in instances where no equivalent Chinese terms exists, they are advised to convey the ‘accurate meaning’ or the pronunciation of the term into Chinese wherever appropriate and then place the English term in brackets after the translation. Examiners will accept this practice only in exceptional circumstances where a Chinese equivalent term does not exist.

Croatian

In translation tests, standard Croatian is to be used. The language used in texts to be translated from Croatian and into Croatian is standard Croatian, with Ijekavian pronunciation using the Roman-script alphabet. Spelling and orthographical conventions used in texts are to follow normative orthographical guides that have been in use in Croatia over the last 30 years, eg. Hrvatski pravopis (2002) by Milan Moguš, Božidar Finka and Stjepan Babić. (Zagreb: Školska knjiga) or Hrvatski pravopis (2014), published by the Institute for Croatian language and linguistics (Zagreb: Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje).

In terms of vocabulary and lexicon, those forms found in authoritative dictionaries such as the Rječnik hrvatskoga jezika (2002) by Jure Šonje (Ed.) (Zagreb: Leksikografski zavod Miroslav Krleža) or the Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika (2003 – 4th edition) by Vladimir Anić (Zagreb: Novi Liber) are to be used. Terms identified in these dictionaries as being specific to particular dialects or regions are to be avoided. Grammatical and semantic expression used in translation tests should, in general, conform to normative guidelines such as: Hrvatski jezični savjetnik (1999) by Eugenija Barić et al. (Eds.) (Zagreb: Institut za hrvatski jezik I jezikoslovlje).

In translation texts, neither source texts nor target texts should contain dialectal forms that are specific to one area or region, and which are unknown in others.

Candidates’ use of Croatian in written form should include the use of diacritic symbols. It is not acceptable to omit the diacritic symbols and omissions will be marked as orthographical mistakes.

In line with Australian government policy, NAATI treats Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian as different languages, each with its own characteristics. Consequently, no tests are held in the Serbo-Croatian language.

Dari

All NAATI candidates, while doing the test, are advised to observe the following:

  • As a candidate, you are expected to translate into non-dialectal, non-regional formal Dari.
  • When translating official organization names for which an official Dari name exists, the candidate should use the Dari translation. For example, UN (سازمانرمللرمتحد ); IOM (سازمانرب ن یرالمللیرمهاجرت ), ATO (ادارهرمالیات ). The candidate may also use the English word first and its Dari translation in brackets.
  • For common Australian institution and organization names such as Centrelink, Medicare etc., the preferred way of translation is to use the English word.
  • Transliteration of English words such as “online”, “app”, “download” are recommended as “آنلاین ”, “آپ ” and “دانلود ” respectively.
  • • Proper English names should be written in Dari. For instance: Mark (مارک ) and Mary (ماری ).
  • Sometimes, two Dari words can be written as a single word by combining them. For instance,ر
  • wordsر“می”رandر“کند ”رas “میکن ر د ” or words “شب ” and “ها ” as “شبها ”. Both variants are acceptable and will not be penalized.
  • Some Dari words are written in the Arabic format or its Dari format; although the Dari format is preferred but if a candidate uses the Arabic format, it is acceptable. For example:

The preferred/correct way writing plural format of the word “گناه ” is “گناهرها ” while it is also commonly written as “گناهان ” which should not be penalized. Similarly, both formats for some Dari words such as “ام رئاطور ” or “ام رئاتور ” ; and “پطرول ” or “پ رئول ” etc. are acceptable.

  • Some widely used modern technical words such as “iPad” or “app” can be kept unchanged from the source-language text. Other English words such as “like” or “file” maybe translated as “لایک ” and “فایل ” respectively.
  • Proper names must be capitalized. For example: The United Nations (سازمانرمللرمتحد ), Sony Company (ر شکترسو ن نر ) etc
English

NAATI Certified Translator tests are usually set in an Australian context. Therefore, English tasks are presented in the Australian English variant in terms of spelling, grammar, punctuation, lexicon and language use.

Candidates can use Australian, British, American and other variants of English in their translation test, provided that the variant is used consistently throughout a task. For example, the use of both ‘footpath’ and ‘sidewalk’ in the same text would be unacceptable because the former term is used in Australian English while the latter term is an American variant. If variants are used inconsistently, then examiners will assess on the basis of the Australian variant.

For information about the Australian variant, please refer to the current editions of the Macquarie Dictionary and the Australian Government Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers

French

The Academy of the French language (Académie française) dictates the rules and standards of the usages, vocabulary, and grammar of the French language; it indicates the correct orthography for each word and determines whether a term is acceptable in French or not, e.g. neologisms, solecisms, barbarisms, use of English words and gender considerations, among others. The Académie française also recommends using the new spelling rules specified in “Les rectifications de l’orthographe” (1990); however it recognises both old and new spelling forms as correct and ac- ceptable. For the purpose of the NAATI test, both forms are accepted. Candidates should however remain consistent with the spelling rule they opt for, e.g. if they decide to use “portemonnaie” instead of “porte-monnaie”, each occurrence of the term should follow the same spelling form.

Test candidates are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional French. Country-specific terms can be used but to a very limited extent, e.g. numbers such as nonante instead of quatre-vingt-dix by Belgian or Swiss speakers would be accepted.

Candidates should note that when translating names of authorities (e.g. UN agencies) for which there is an official translation into French, they should use the standard equivalent in French.

For translator certification tests NAATI expects French candidates to adhere to the above rules and standards.

German

Standard German (also referred to as Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardised variety of the German language used in both formal contexts and for communication between different dialect areas.

Regarding the spelling and punctuation in Certified Translator tests, NAATI accepts the standard recommended by the Council for German Orthography which represents the governments of all majority and minority German-speaking countries and dependencies. The basics are DUDEN. Die deutsche Rechtschreibung“ (as of the 24th edition, 2006) and WAHRIG. Die deutsche Rechtschreibung“ (editions as of 2006).

Greek

Modern Greek is the standardised variety of the Greek language used in both context and for communication between different dialect areas. Regarding the spelling and punctuation in Certified Translator tests, NAATI accepts the standard modern Greek as used in the recognised official language of Greece and Cyprus. Katharevousa texts will not be included in NAATI Certification Test.

Hindi
  • The Devanagari script is used in the Hindi source text for the Translator test into English
  • For the translator test into Hindi, applicants should use standard Hindi Khadi Boli (खड़ी बोली) written in the Devanagari script. Provincial or regional variations and non-standard usage will not be accepted.
  • As translation is meant for written documents, use of formal and official Hindi words (i.e. no colloquial words) as per the genre and register is expected.
  • Urdu words for which Hindi words are available will not be accepted. Use of Urdu words may be accepted only if there is no commonly used standard Hindi equivalent word available and the Urdu word used is understood by most Hindi readers and speakers (for example, दस्तावेज़, मुद्दा). Where the Urdu word is written with a नुक़्ता, omission of नुक़्ता will not be accepted.
  • Transliteration of English words for which a Hindi equivalent exists will not be accepted. Candidates are expected to use संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ for युनाइटेड नेशन्स (“United Nations”), काली खाँसी for हूपिंग कफ़ (“whooping cough”).
  • Where Hindi words are uncommon or unavailable, English words can be transliterated in Hindi (for example, “online” as ऑनलाइन or “passport” as पासपोर्ट).
  • Some proper nouns may contain a common noun. In such cases, it is acceptable to use a Hindi word for translating the common noun and transliterate the rest of the proper noun (for example, “University of Sydney” can be written as सिडनी विश्वविद्यालय, “Monash Library” can be written as मोनाश पुस्तकालय).
  • Hindi words that should be written with a चंद्रबिंदु, बिंदु और अर्द्धचंद्र (for example, आँख, कंठ, ऑस्ट्रेलिया) should not be written without चंद्रबिंदु, बिंदु और अर्द्धचंद्र and will not be accepted if these are omitted.
  • Scientific and technical terms: English words referring to recent technologies and medicine which are widely adopted in the Hindi language can be transliterated in Hindi where Hindi words are uncommon or unavailable (for example, “CT scan” as सी टी स्कैन, “mobile phone” as मोबाइल फ़ोन).
  • Numbers: candidates must be able to comprehend small and large numbers written in English and Hindi. They must be able to convert “hundred thousand”, “million” and “billion” into लाख, करोड़ and अरब and vice versa.

देवनागरी लिपि तथा हिन्दी वर्तनी का मानकीकरण (Devanagari Lipi and Hindi Vartani ka Mankikaran) is available free of charge on the internet. It is published by the Central Hindi Directorate, New Delhi, an organisation responsible for providing acceptable standard for Hindi. This publication can help in learning the correct and acceptable spellings of Hindi script.

Indonesian

Indonesian has adopted the new Indonesian Spelling System (Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia) in 2015 which replaced the previous Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System (Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan). Test candidates are expected to adhere to the rules and standards of the new spelling system.

In addition, for assessment purposes the vocabulary and usages produced by candidates sitting a translator certification test from English to Indonesian should be clearly Indonesian and not Malay, in any instances where there is a significant difference between the two.

Italian

Candidates sitting the Italian CT test are expected to use the standard written form of the Italian language, its standard spelling and accentuation rules.

As a point of reference in this regard, the Accademia della Crusca is the most prestigious authority on the Italian language. As well as having a dedicated role in research on the Italian language, it is also responsible for indicating the correct orthography for each word and determines whether a term is acceptable in Italian or not. To this end, candidates are also advised to consult the Treccani dictionary, published by the Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana and universally accepted as the most authoritative Italian language dictionary.

The use of some English words in Italian is acceptable where these words are commonly used by native Italian speakers and are part of the lexicon, e.g., il computer, lo spread (economics).

Candidates should note that when translating names of authorities (e.g. UN agencies and inter- national organisations) for which there is an official or conventional translation into Italian, they should use the standard equivalent in Italian, e.g., the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-oper- ation and Development) in Italian is known as l’OCSE – L’Organizzazione per la cooperazione e lo sviluppo economico.

Japanese

Test candidates are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional Japanese and should use standard Japanese (Hyojungo) in their translations.

For translator certification tests NAATI expects Japanese candidates to adhere to the above rules and standards.

Korean

Candidates sitting the Certified and Certified Advanced Translator tests are expected to use the standard South Korean language, which is defined as ‘the modern Seoul dialect widely used by the well-cultivated’.

English words, and in some cases words from other languages, are regularly and commonly used and widely understood. Where this is the case, candidates will not be penalised for using a foreign language word, even if a Korean word could have been used to describe or express the same information.

Candidates should follow the most recent Rules of the Korean Language (한글 맞춤법), including spelling, spacing, and punctuation rules, which can be found on the website of the National Institute of Korean Language (국립국어원, www.korean.go.kr)

Candidates are expected to understand the basic rules of spacing. However, it is sometimes difficult to apply the spacing rules of the Korean language to specific words or elements. In such cases, the examiner may show leniency, provided that the spacing error does not distort the intended meaning of a word or element.

Malay

Malay adopted the 1972 Ejaan Baku standard Malay spelling system, and has more recently updated this, as reflected in the latest edition of the Kamus Dewan. Test candidates are expected to adhere to the rules and standards of this spelling system.

In addition, for assessment purposes the vocabulary and usages produced by candidates sitting a translator certification test from English to Malay should be clearly Malay and not Indonesian, in any instances where there is a significant difference between the two.

Where a translation from English to Malay uses an excessive number of English loan-words in circumstances where Malay words are readily available and widely known, such loan-words may not be accepted. However, where an English loan-word is widely used and recognised by Malay speakers (for instance, recent technological terminology), its use may be accepted.

Persian

The Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستانرزبانرورادبرفارسی ) formerly known as the Academy of Iran (فرهنگستانرایران ) is the official regulatory body of the Persian language.رIt sets the rules and standards of the usage, vocabulary and grammar of the Persian language; it indicates the correct orthography of each word and determines if a word is acceptable in the Persian language or not.

NAATI expect the candidates for a CT/CAT test into Persian to observe the following rules as well:

  • As test candidates, you are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional formal Persian
  • You need to write English names in Persian alphabet using Persian phonetics as a general guideline, e.g. John = جان or Claudia = کلودیا . If unsure, you may add the English form in brackets.
  • Long vowel alif (الفرممدوده ) must have the symbol of length on it. For example: آنهار–رآیا
  • The following signs may or may not be used:
    • Tashdid (تشدید ): Do not repeat the letter instead of tashdid. For example: نججار is incorrect.
    • Sokoun (سکون ): is not necessary in Persian.
    • Short ya (یایرکوتاه ): You can use either (ی) or (ء) For example: همهری is also accepted.
    • Tanvin (تنوین ): Do not replace it with “Noon”. For example: قطعن is incorrect

Note: If you choose to use Arabic words, the Arabic rules of dictation must be observed

  • “به ” must be written separately as in “بهرنام ”, “بهرخاطر ”
  • “ها ” as a sign of plural may be written attached to or separate from any noun except for foreign nouns where it must be written separately such as (کمونیسترها , لی رئالرها ).
  • If there are two dictation forms for one word, both of them are acceptable only if theyرrefer to and mean the same thing. For example: (اتو /اطو , اتاق /اطاق ).
  • Candidates should note that when translating names of geographical locations (e.g. Sydney) or other nouns from English into Persian, they should use the standard equivalent Persian terms. However, in instances where no equivalent terms exist, they are advised to convey the ‘accurate meaning’ or the pronunciation of the term into Persian wherever appropriate and then place the English term in brackets after the translation. Examiners will accept this practice only in exceptional circumstances where a Persian equivalent does not exist. Example: Fast food (غذایرحا ن ضی )
  • Candidates should note that when translating names of authorities (e.g. UN agencies and international organisations) for which there is an official or conventional translation into Persian, they should use the standard equivalent in Persian, e.g., the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) in Persian is known as (سازمانرتوسعهرهمکاریراقتصادی ).
  • The use of punctuation (؟!،.) is very important. The candidates are required to use the Persian style of punctuation in their work.
Polish

Contemporary Polish to be used by candidates. When an established Polish term exists, candidates are not to use an English word, except when it is part of the lexicon and in common usage. Candidates are expected to add diacritical marks (characters), which are part of the standard Polish alphabet, to their translations (ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż).

Portuguese

Applicants should be aware that NAATI adheres to the Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990 (Acordo Ortográfico da Língua Portuguesa de 1990), which was ratified by some countries including Brazil and Portugal. This agreement acknowledges common orthographies, that is, recognition of one language with agreeable variations in spellings.

Applicants must use one regional variety consistently (including grammar and vocabulary) and inconsistencies will be penalised.

Punjabi

NAATI Punjabi tests are delivered in Eastern Punjabi script (Gurumukhi) as used in India. NAATI tests are not available in Western Punjabi script (Shahmukhi) as used in Pakistan. Applicants more proficient in this variety of the language should consider sitting tests in Urdu.

Certified Translator test from Punjabi into English: CTE

  • The Gurmukhi script is used in the Punjabi source text.
  • Test candidates are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional Punjabi and should use standard Punjabi in their translations.
  • If a figure is provided in lakhs or crores in Punjabi it must be converted to thousands and millions in English.

Certified Translator test from English into Punjabi: CTO

  • Applicants are expected to use the Gurmukhi script when translating from English into Punjabi. The use of other scripts (e.g. Urdu) will be penalised.
  • Candidate needs to use RAAVI Punjabi font so that markers can easily read it.
  • English numerals are commonly used in the Punjabi language; therefore, it is acceptable for applicants to use English numerals in their translations.
  • English words referring to recent technologies, e.g. iPad, which are widely adopted in the Punjabi language can be transliterated in Punjabi.
Russian

Test candidates are expected to translate into the non-dialectical and non-regional standard Russian.

Candidates should follow the rules set in Розенталь Д. Э., Джанджакова Е. В., Кабанова Н. П. Справочник по правописанию, произношению, литературному редактированию (A Manual on Spelling, Pronunciation and Literary Editing by D.E. Rozental, E.V. Dzhandzhakova and N.P. Kabanova) and in Зализняк А. А. Грамматический словарь русского языка. Словоизменение. (A Grammar Dictionary of the Russian Language. Word Modification. by A.A. Zaliznyak) or any other relevant resource approved by Институт русского языка имени В. В. Виноградова Российской академии наук (V.V. Vinogradov Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences).

Candidates can use spelling, grammatical and word variations approved by the above-mentioned Russian Language Institute (e.g. neutral gender for «кофе» («чёрное кофе») instead of masculine («чёрный кофе»), or any of the word equivalents («прото́к», «прото́ка»), as long as they do it consistently throughout the text.

Candidates should note that when translating names of authorities for which there is an official Russian translation, they should use the latter. For companies and brand names they can choose between transliterating them into Cyrillic or retaining the Latin script, as long as they do it consistently throughout the text.

Spanish

The Royal Academy of the Spanish Language (Real Academia Española), in agreement with the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, dictates the rules and standards of the Spanish language; it indicates the correct orthography for each word and determines whether the term is acceptable Spanish or not, e.g. neologisms, solecisms or barbarisms.

For translator certification tests NAATI expects Spanish candidates to adhere to these rules and standards.

Sinhalese
  • There may be some different words used in different regions in Sri Lanka to define the meaning of same words, but this is insignificant, and the meaning of those words are easily identifiable.
  • Commonly accepted and widely used English abbreviations can be used, e.g., UNESCO යුනෙස නකෝව -එක්සත් ජාතීන්ගේ අධ්‍යාපන, විද්‍යාත්මක සහ සංස්කෘතික සංවිධ්‍ානය, NASA ොසා සංවිධාෙය, OECD, NATO UNHCR etc.
  • Candidates are expected to perform their tests electronically using the following Sinhala fonts.

Kaputa, FM Malithi, Iskola Potha or FM Abhaya

  • In Sinhalese language, there are two forms, spoken and written Sinhalese. Candidates are expected to write in Written Sinhalese for their translation tests.
Thai
English to Thai

Language Variants: Candidates must use Central (non-regional) Thai. The use of regional variants will not be accepted. The Royal Institute Dictionary should be consulted for the correct spelling of Thai words.

The use of English words in Thai: Candidates are encouraged to minimise the use of English words except where the relevant terminology is formally accepted or widely used in the Thai language. Some examples of English terms that are formally accepted for use in Thai are นิวเคลียร์, โปรแกรม and คอมพิวเตอร์. Terms that are widely used include, for example, อัปโหลด, เว็บไซต์ and พาสปอร์ต.

When translating into Thai, the use of English terms, whether formally accepted or widely used, must also be appropriate to the register. For example, ร้อยละ is more appropriate in a more formal register than เปอร์เซ็นต์. Similarly, ธนาคาร is more appropriate in a formal setting than แบงก์.

Names and Proper Nouns: When translating into Thai, use the established version for proper nouns e.g. แอฟริกา (as opposed to อาฟริกา) or มาเลเซีย (as opposed to มาเลเชีย). If there is no established version, transliterate or transcribe the name and provide the English term in parentheses (e.g. พาราเบอร์ดู (Paraburdoo)).

The names of organisations should be translated where appropriate followed by the respective English terms and acronyms (if any) in parentheses (e.g. กรมขนส่ง (Department of Transport), สภากาชาด (Red Cross)). If a translated term is in existence in common or official use, it should be adopted (e.g. องค์การอนามัยโลก rather than องค์การสุขภาพโลก for the World Health Organization).

Thai to English

Names and Proper Nouns: When transcribing Thai proper nouns into English, adopt the existing version in common or official use where available. If there is none, candidates should follow the Royal Thai General System of Transcription (e.g. use Pattaya as opposed to Phatthaya).

Turkish

Candidates sitting for the Turkish Certified Translator test are expected to use the standard, non-di- alectal, non-regional written form of the Turkish language, complete rules of its standard spelling, punctuation form and accentuation.

Türk Dil Kurumu [The Turkish Language Institution] is the reference point in this regard. It is the authority to determine whether a word/ a term/ spelling/ usage are acceptable in Turkish or not.

It should be noted by the candidates that when names of authorities are translated (e.g. Australian Departments, International organizations) for which there is an official or conventional translation in Turkish, the standard Turkish equivalent must be used (e.g., EU European Union= Avrupa Birliği, NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization= Kuzey Atlantik Anlaşması Örgütü, Department of Home Affairs= İçişleri Bakanlığı).

If the script is electronically produced, font Times New Roman and size 11 will be acceptable.

For Translator Certification tests, NAATI expects Turkish candidates to adhere to the above rules and standards.

Urdu

NAATI Urdu tests are delivered in Urdu as used in Pakistan.

Candidates are expected to use current standards for the Urdu script and grammar. Archaic or uncommon usage may be penalised.

The transliteration of English terms in Urdu may be appropriate and/or necessary in some contexts, for instance, for household appliances, medical or other technical terms that do not have adequate equivalents in the Urdu language. The unnecessary or inappropriate use of English words will be penalised.

Numerical concepts i.e. “29, millions, billions etc.” should be translated.

Candidates are expected to use the correct gender verbs for Urdu nouns, regardless of whether these nouns refer to living things. The use of incorrect gender verbs will be penalised.

Candidates are expected to use the correct spellings of words.

Vietnamese

Test candidates are expected to translate into non-regional Vietnamese, using the Vietnamese modern writing system.

For translator certification tests NAATI expects Vietnamese candidates to adhere to the above rules and standards.