Candidates must ensure that the font they use to perform their test supports Unicode
NAATI expects candidates for translator certification tests into Arabic to adhere to the rules and standards below.
The standardised modern colloquial (“Chalit”) form of Bangla i.e., the Promito Bangla should be used in translating. It is the most commonly used colloquial standard of Bangla in formal speaking and writing at the present time in Bangladesh and India. However, if the other conventional literary (“Sadhu”) form of Bangla is used, it must be consistently used throughout the document. Only one form of language must be used in a document.
Interactional Status Markers
Bangla has honorific, ordinary and affectionate/contemptuous forms of verbs and pronouns to indicate the interactional status of individuals involved. These should be used appropriately according to the context of a passage.
Translators should use the appropriate words and phrases used in greetings by individuals from various faiths. Following are some instances:
Candidates are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional formal written form of Burmese following the current standard spelling, punctuation and accentuation rules as published in a current Burmese Dictionary by the Department of the Myanmar Language Commission, the Ministry of Education of the Union of Myanmar or in any other current Myanmar Dictionaries officially published.
Candidates are recommended to use standard Burmese and to prefer Burmese words and terminology over foreign words and terminology. However, Pali words may be used, for example, in a legal domain or in a political context, as long as the Pali words are commonly known to a Burmese speaker and frequently used in the Burmese community.
Candidates should note that when translating names of geographical locations (e.g., Australia) and authorities (e.g., United Nations) from English into Burmese, they should use the established equivalent Burmese terms. However, in instances where no equivalent Burmese terms exist, they are advised to convey the ‘accurate meaning’ or the pronunciation of the term (e.g., Proper English names) into Burmese wherever appropriate and then place the English term in brackets after the translation.
Modern Standard Chinese can be written in two different forms of scripts: the traditional full-form or the simplified form. Candidates for Certified Translator or Certified Advanced Translator tests will not be expected to know both forms of scripts.
For Chinese into English translator tests, candidates will be given the option of translating from or revising traditional full-form or the simplified form test materials. Once a decision is made the whole traditional full-form or the simplified form test must be completed.
For English into Chinese translator tests, Candidates must consistently use either the traditional full form of characters or the officially approved simplified characters. Candidates are not to mix both traditional and simplified characters and use non-standard variant forms of characters.
In romanising Chinese proper names, Candidates must conform either to the Pinyin or Wade-Giles systems. In transliterating Chinese place-names, use may also be made of what is known as the Post-Office system.
Candidates should note that when translating names of geographical locations (e.g., Sydney) and authorities (e.g., UN) from English into Chinese, they should use the standard equivalent Chinese terms. However, in instances where no equivalent Chinese terms exists, they are advised to convey the ‘accurate meaning’ or the pronunciation of the term into Chinese wherever appropriate and then place the English term in brackets after the translation. Examiners will accept this practice only in exceptional circumstances where a Chinese equivalent term does not exist.
In translation tests, standard Croatian is to be used. The language used in texts to be translated from Croatian and into Croatian is standard Croatian, with Ijekavian pronunciation using the Roman-script alphabet. Spelling and orthographical conventions used in texts are to follow normative orthographical guides that have been in use in Croatia over the last 30 years, eg. Hrvatski pravopis (2002) by Milan Moguš, Božidar Finka and Stjepan Babić. (Zagreb: Školska knjiga) or Hrvatski pravopis (2014), published by the Institute for Croatian language and linguistics (Zagreb: Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje).
In terms of vocabulary and lexicon, those forms found in authoritative dictionaries such as the Rječnik hrvatskoga jezika (2002) by Jure Šonje (Ed.) (Zagreb: Leksikografski zavod Miroslav Krleža) or the Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika (2003 – 4th edition) by Vladimir Anić (Zagreb: Novi Liber) are to be used. Terms identified in these dictionaries as being specific to particular dialects or regions are to be avoided. Grammatical and semantic expression used in translation tests should, in general, conform to normative guidelines such as: Hrvatski jezični savjetnik (1999) by Eugenija Barić et al. (Eds.) (Zagreb: Institut za hrvatski jezik I jezikoslovlje).
In translation texts, neither source texts nor target texts should contain dialectal forms that are specific to one area or region, and which are unknown in others.
Candidates’ use of Croatian in written form should include the use of diacritic symbols. It is not acceptable to omit the diacritic symbols and omissions will be marked as orthographical mistakes.
In line with Australian government policy, NAATI treats Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian as different languages, each with its own characteristics. Consequently, no tests are held in the Serbo-Croatian language.
All NAATI candidates, while doing the test, are advised to observe the following:
The preferred/correct way writing plural format of the word “گناه ” is “گناهرها ” while it is also commonly written as “گناهان ” which should not be penalized. Similarly, both formats for some Dari words such as “ام رئاطور ” or “ام رئاتور ” ; and “پطرول ” or “پ رئول ” etc. are acceptable.
NAATI Certified Translator tests are usually set in an Australian context. Therefore, English tasks are presented in the Australian English variant in terms of spelling, grammar, punctuation, lexicon and language use.
Candidates can use Australian, British, American and other variants of English in their translation test, provided that the variant is used consistently throughout a task. For example, the use of both ‘footpath’ and ‘sidewalk’ in the same text would be unacceptable because the former term is used in Australian English while the latter term is an American variant. If variants are used inconsistently, then examiners will assess on the basis of the Australian variant.
For information about the Australian variant, please refer to the current editions of the Macquarie Dictionary and the Australian Government Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers
A Filipino translation is required to be written in Filipino, as defined in the Commission on the Filipino Language Act 1991. The translation can include words from other languages if these words are already included in the latest Filipino Language Dictionary “Diksyonaryo ng Wikang Filipino” which is published by the Commission of the Filipino Language. Coining or inventing words, as well as the use of slang words, will not be accepted in the translation.
As much as possible all English words including proper nouns (but excluding personal names, acronyms and proper names of establishments with no language equivalent, such as “Medicare”, “Centrelink”) should be translated into Filipino. If there is no equivalent in Filipino, translation should be based on meaning. Transliterating or adapting English words will only be accepted in cases where a translation would be too cumbersome and the adapted word is already in popular use e.g. “pag-charge (ng baterya)”, “mobile phone”, “kompyuter”, etc.
Spelling is to be standardised and must follow the spelling rules as set out in the manual published by the Commission of the Filipino Language “KWF Manwal sa Masinop na Pagsulat 2014”.
Grammar, punctuation and sentence structure must also adhere to the correct Filipino grammar as explained in the Manual of National Language Grammar published by the Commission: “KWF Balarila ng Wikang Pambansa 2019”. Sentences with the ‘ay’ marker (formal sentence structure), as well as without ‘ay’ (informal sentence structure) are both acceptable in a translation.
The Academy of the French language (Académie française) dictates the rules and standards of the usages, vocabulary, and grammar of the French language; it indicates the correct orthography for each word and determines whether a term is acceptable in French or not, e.g. neologisms, solecisms, barbarisms, use of English words and gender considerations, among others. The Académie française also recommends using the new spelling rules specified in “Les rectifications de l’orthographe” (1990); however it recognises both old and new spelling forms as correct and ac- ceptable. For the purpose of the NAATI test, both forms are accepted. Candidates should however remain consistent with the spelling rule they opt for, e.g. if they decide to use “portemonnaie” instead of “porte-monnaie”, each occurrence of the term should follow the same spelling form.
Test candidates are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional French. Country-specific terms can be used but to a very limited extent, e.g. numbers such as nonante instead of quatre-vingt-dix by Belgian or Swiss speakers would be accepted.
Candidates should note that when translating names of authorities (e.g. UN agencies) for which there is an official translation into French, they should use the standard equivalent in French.
For translator certification tests NAATI expects French candidates to adhere to the above rules and standards.
Standard German (also referred to as Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardised variety of the German language used in both formal contexts and for communication between different dialect areas.
Regarding the spelling and punctuation in Certified Translator tests, NAATI accepts the standard recommended by the Council for German Orthography which represents the governments of all majority and minority German-speaking countries and dependencies. The basics are DUDEN. Die deutsche Rechtschreibung“ (as of the 24th edition, 2006) and WAHRIG. Die deutsche Rechtschreibung“ (editions as of 2006).
Modern Greek is the standardised variety of the Greek language used in both context and for communication between different dialect areas. Regarding the spelling and punctuation in Certified Translator tests, NAATI accepts the standard modern Greek as used in the recognised official language of Greece and Cyprus. Katharevousa texts will not be included in NAATI Certification Test.
देवनागरी लिपि तथा हिन्दी वर्तनी का मानकीकरण (Devanagari Lipi and Hindi Vartani ka Mankikaran) is available free of charge on the internet. It is published by the Central Hindi Directorate, New Delhi, an organisation responsible for providing acceptable standard for Hindi. This publication can help in learning the correct and acceptable spellings of Hindi script.
Indonesian has adopted the new Indonesian Spelling System (Ejaan Bahasa Indonesia) in 2015 which replaced the previous Enhanced Indonesian Spelling System (Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan). Test candidates are expected to adhere to the rules and standards of the new spelling system.
In addition, for assessment purposes the vocabulary and usages produced by candidates sitting a translator certification test from English to Indonesian should be clearly Indonesian and not Malay, in any instances where there is a significant difference between the two.
Candidates sitting the Italian CT test are expected to use the standard written form of the Italian language, its standard spelling and accentuation rules.
As a point of reference in this regard, the Accademia della Crusca is the most prestigious authority on the Italian language. As well as having a dedicated role in research on the Italian language, it is also responsible for indicating the correct orthography for each word and determines whether a term is acceptable in Italian or not. To this end, candidates are also advised to consult the Treccani dictionary, published by the Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana and universally accepted as the most authoritative Italian language dictionary.
The use of some English words in Italian is acceptable where these words are commonly used by native Italian speakers and are part of the lexicon, e.g., il computer, lo spread (economics).
Candidates should note that when translating names of authorities (e.g. UN agencies and inter- national organisations) for which there is an official or conventional translation into Italian, they should use the standard equivalent in Italian, e.g., the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-oper- ation and Development) in Italian is known as l’OCSE – L’Organizzazione per la cooperazione e lo sviluppo economico.
Test candidates are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional Japanese and should use standard Japanese (Hyojungo) in their translations.
For translator certification tests NAATI expects Japanese candidates to adhere to the above rules and standards.
Candidates sitting the Certified and Certified Advanced Translator tests are expected to use the standard South Korean language, which is defined as ‘the modern Seoul dialect widely used by the well-cultivated’.
English words, and in some cases words from other languages, are regularly and commonly used and widely understood. Where this is the case, candidates will not be penalised for using a foreign language word, even if a Korean word could have been used to describe or express the same information.
Candidates should follow the most recent Rules of the Korean Language (한글 맞춤법), including spelling, spacing, and punctuation rules, which can be found on the website of the National Institute of Korean Language (국립국어원, www.korean.go.kr)
Candidates are expected to understand the basic rules of spacing. However, it is sometimes difficult to apply the spacing rules of the Korean language to specific words or elements. In such cases, the examiner may show leniency, provided that the spacing error does not distort the intended meaning of a word or element.
Standard Macedonian must be used in translation tests. This means that the Cyrillic-script alphabet is to be used in texts that are to be translated into Macedonian.
Spelling and Orthography
Spelling and orthographical conventions used in translations are to follow normative orthographical guides that are in use in Macedonia. Acceptable guides are considered materials published by leading Macedonian language institutions such as the Institute of Macedonian Language “Krste Misirkov”, Skopje. For example, Правопис на македонскиот јазик (2017), second edition.
Use of Diacritic Symbols
Candidates’ use of Macedonian in written form should include the use of diacritic symbols. It is not acceptable to omit the diacritic symbols and omissions will be marked as orthographical mistakes.
Vocabulary and Lexicon
In terms of vocabulary and lexicon, those forms found in authoritative dictionaries such as Толковен речник на македонскиот јазик (2002) by the Institute of Macedonian Language “Krste Misirkov” – Skopje, Routledge Macedonian-English Dictionary, Australian National University, English-Macedonian Dictionary by Olga Miseska-Tomic, may be used. Terms identified in these dictionaries as being specific to particular dialects or regions are to be avoided. Grammatical and semantic expression used in translation tests should, in general, conform to normative guidelines such as those contained in Граматика на македонскиот литературен јазик 1967 (1953) by Blaze Koneski published by “Kultura” Skopje.
Malay adopted the 1972 Ejaan Baku standard Malay spelling system, and has more recently updated this, as reflected in the latest edition of the Kamus Dewan. Test candidates are expected to adhere to the rules and standards of this spelling system.
In addition, for assessment purposes the vocabulary and usages produced by candidates sitting a translator certification test from English to Malay should be clearly Malay and not Indonesian, in any instances where there is a significant difference between the two.
Where a translation from English to Malay uses an excessive number of English loan-words in circumstances where Malay words are readily available and widely known, such loan-words may not be accepted. However, where an English loan-word is widely used and recognised by Malay speakers (for instance, recent technological terminology), its use may be accepted.
The Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستانرزبانرورادبرفارسی ) formerly known as the Academy of Iran (فرهنگستانرایران ) is the official regulatory body of the Persian language.رIt sets the rules and standards of the usage, vocabulary and grammar of the Persian language; it indicates the correct orthography of each word and determines if a word is acceptable in the Persian language or not.
NAATI expect the candidates for a CT/CAT test into Persian to observe the following rules as well:
Note: If you choose to use Arabic words, the Arabic rules of dictation must be observed
Contemporary Polish to be used by candidates. When an established Polish term exists, candidates are not to use an English word, except when it is part of the lexicon and in common usage. Candidates are expected to add diacritical marks (characters), which are part of the standard Polish alphabet, to their translations (ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż).
Applicants should be aware that NAATI adheres to the Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990 (Acordo Ortográfico da Língua Portuguesa de 1990), which was ratified by some countries including Brazil and Portugal. This agreement acknowledges common orthographies, that is, recognition of one language with agreeable variations in spellings.
Applicants must use one regional variety consistently (including grammar and vocabulary) and inconsistencies will be penalised.
NAATI Punjabi tests are delivered in Eastern Punjabi script (Gurumukhi) as used in India. NAATI tests are not available in Western Punjabi script (Shahmukhi) as used in Pakistan. Applicants more proficient in this variety of the language should consider sitting tests in Urdu.
Certified Translator test from Punjabi into English: CTE
Certified Translator test from English into Punjabi: CTO
Test candidates are expected to translate into the non-dialectical and non-regional standard Russian.
Candidates should follow the rules set in Розенталь Д. Э., Джанджакова Е. В., Кабанова Н. П. Справочник по правописанию, произношению, литературному редактированию (A Manual on Spelling, Pronunciation and Literary Editing by D.E. Rozental, E.V. Dzhandzhakova and N.P. Kabanova) and in Зализняк А. А. Грамматический словарь русского языка. Словоизменение. (A Grammar Dictionary of the Russian Language. Word Modification. by A.A. Zaliznyak) or any other relevant resource approved by Институт русского языка имени В. В. Виноградова Российской академии наук (V.V. Vinogradov Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences).
Candidates can use spelling, grammatical and word variations approved by the above-mentioned Russian Language Institute (e.g. neutral gender for «кофе» («чёрное кофе») instead of masculine («чёрный кофе»), or any of the word equivalents («прото́к», «прото́ка»), as long as they do it consistently throughout the text.
Candidates should note that when translating names of authorities for which there is an official Russian translation, they should use the latter. For companies and brand names they can choose between transliterating them into Cyrillic or retaining the Latin script, as long as they do it consistently throughout the text.
The Royal Academy of the Spanish Language (Real Academia Española), in agreement with the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, dictates the rules and standards of the Spanish language; it indicates the correct orthography for each word and determines whether the term is acceptable Spanish or not, e.g. neologisms, solecisms or barbarisms.
For translator certification tests NAATI expects Spanish candidates to adhere to these rules and standards.
Candidates should note:
Tamil language has two forms, high register and low register. NAATI candidates are expected to write in a high register for their translation tests.
Spoken speech reported as a quotation within inverted commas (“”) that forms a colloquial style of language can be written in low register.
The candidates are expected to perform their test electronically and use an Open Type font based on Uni-Code when typing in Tamil script. Uni-Code font ‘Vijaya’ is preferred.
Commonly accepted and widely used English abbreviations can be used as they are.
Examples: DHHA, COVID, UN, ABF etc
4. Scientific and Technical Terms
Scientific and technical terminology used commonly will be used in the test materials. However, candidates are free to use any terminology that is in usage in any Tamil-speaking region. If there is no equivalent word in Tamil language, the candidates are allowed to use the English word.
Example: Ozone, ஓசோன்
5. Use of English Words
Word level English usage is accepted when there is no exact term or expression in Tamil for an English word.
Common words in usage such as car, bus, coffee and visa can be written as கார், பஸ், காபி மற்றும் வீசா.
6. Tamil Spelling Variants
Some Tamil words are spelt differently when written depending on the region. Spelling variants that are commonly in use are accepted.
Example: வறட்சி – வரட்சி, கருப்பு – கறுப்பு, சிகப்பு – சிவப்பு, காபி – கோப்பி
Transliterating proper nouns including geographical names should be followed using the commonly prevalent pattern. However, consistency must be maintained throughout the translation.
Australia: ஆஸ்திரேலியா / அவுஸ்திரேலியா.
Oxygen: ஆக்சிஜன் / ஒட்சிசன்
Carbon: கார்பன் / காபண்
Centrelink: செண்டர்லிங்க் / சென்ரலின்க்
8. Grantha Scripts and Reformed Format
Usage of Grantha scripts ( ஜ, ஷ, ஸ, ஹ, க்ஷ, ஸ்ரீ ) in Tamil language is allowed.
The candidate is expected to maintain consistency throughout the translation.
If the candidate chooses to translate in a reformed format, consistency of that format must be maintained.
லக்ஷ்மி, ஸ்ரீ, ஷாந்தி (Grantha script in usage)
இலக்குமி, சிறி, சாந்தி (Reformed format)
The candidates are expected to use only the decimal numeral system when translating from English to Tamil.
Example: 1, 2, 3, 77, 309
Lakhs and Crores can be accepted to denote numerical values.
The value should be calculated correctly.
100,000 = 1 lakh, 1 million = 10 lakhs, 10 million = 1 crore
Language Variants: Candidates must use Central (non-regional) Thai. The use of regional variants will not be accepted. The Royal Institute Dictionary should be consulted for the correct spelling of Thai words.
The use of English words in Thai: Candidates are encouraged to minimise the use of English words except where the relevant terminology is formally accepted or widely used in the Thai language. Some examples of English terms that are formally accepted for use in Thai are นิวเคลียร์, โปรแกรม and คอมพิวเตอร์. Terms that are widely used include, for example, อัปโหลด, เว็บไซต์ and พาสปอร์ต.
When translating into Thai, the use of English terms, whether formally accepted or widely used, must also be appropriate to the register. For example, ร้อยละ is more appropriate in a more formal register than เปอร์เซ็นต์. Similarly, ธนาคาร is more appropriate in a formal setting than แบงก์.
Names and Proper Nouns: When translating into Thai, use the established version for proper nouns e.g. แอฟริกา (as opposed to อาฟริกา) or มาเลเซีย (as opposed to มาเลเชีย). If there is no established version, transliterate or transcribe the name and provide the English term in parentheses (e.g. พาราเบอร์ดู (Paraburdoo)).
The names of organisations should be translated where appropriate followed by the respective English terms and acronyms (if any) in parentheses (e.g. กรมขนส่ง (Department of Transport), สภากาชาด (Red Cross)). If a translated term is in existence in common or official use, it should be adopted (e.g. องค์การอนามัยโลก rather than องค์การสุขภาพโลก for the World Health Organization).
Names and Proper Nouns: When transcribing Thai proper nouns into English, adopt the existing version in common or official use where available. If there is none, candidates should follow the Royal Thai General System of Transcription (e.g. use Pattaya as opposed to Phatthaya).
Candidates sitting for the Turkish Certified Translator test are expected to use the standard, non-di- alectal, non-regional written form of the Turkish language, complete rules of its standard spelling, punctuation form and accentuation.
Türk Dil Kurumu [The Turkish Language Institution] is the reference point in this regard. It is the authority to determine whether a word/ a term/ spelling/ usage are acceptable in Turkish or not.
It should be noted by the candidates that when names of authorities are translated (e.g. Australian Departments, International organizations) for which there is an official or conventional translation in Turkish, the standard Turkish equivalent must be used (e.g., EU European Union= Avrupa Birliği, NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization= Kuzey Atlantik Anlaşması Örgütü, Department of Home Affairs= İçişleri Bakanlığı).
For Translator Certification tests, NAATI expects Turkish candidates to adhere to the above rules and standards.
NAATI Urdu tests are delivered in Urdu as used in Pakistan.
Candidates are expected to use current standards for the Urdu script and grammar. Archaic or uncommon usage may be penalised.
The transliteration of English terms in Urdu may be appropriate and/or necessary in some contexts, for instance, for household appliances, medical or other technical terms that do not have adequate equivalents in the Urdu language. The unnecessary or inappropriate use of English words will be penalised.
Numerical concepts i.e. “29, millions, billions etc.” should be translated.
Candidates are expected to use the correct gender verbs for Urdu nouns, regardless of whether these nouns refer to living things. The use of incorrect gender verbs will be penalised.
Candidates are expected to use the correct spellings of words.
Test candidates are expected to translate into non-regional Vietnamese, using the Vietnamese modern writing system.
For translator certification tests NAATI expects Vietnamese candidates to adhere to the above rules and standards.