Candidates must ensure that the font they use to perform their test supports Unicode.
The standardised modern colloquial (“Chalit”) form of Bangla i.e., the Promito Bangla should be used in translating. It is the most commonly used colloquial standard of Bangla in formal speaking and writing at the present time in Bangladesh and India. However, if the other conventional literary (“Sadhu”) form of Bangla is used, it must be consistently used throughout the document. Only one form of language must be used in a document.
Interactional Status Markers
Bangla has honorific, ordinary and affectionate/contemptuous forms of verbs and pronouns to indicate the interactional status of individuals involved. These should be used appropriately according to the context of a passage.
Translators should use the appropriate words and phrases used in greetings by individuals from various faiths. Following are some instances:
- Us-salam-walikoom is used to greet an individual from Muslim faith. In response that person would say Wa-lie-koom-selam.
- Namashkar or Namaste is used to greet an individual from Hinduism or Buddhism faith. In response that person would say the same.
- There is also a practice of using Adaab to greet a non-Muslim person. The person would say the same in response.
- In addressing individuals from Muslim faith, the titles used are Janab (male) and Janaba/Begum (female), whereas for the individuals from Hindu faith they become Sree/Babu (male) and Sreemati (female).
- Forms of verbs and pronouns which mark interactional status should be used appropriately, according to the context of a passage. The inconsistent use of these markers for the same individuals in a passage will be penalised.
- Bangla words have been developed and enriched by six major sources, viz. Tatsama (= Sanskrit), Tatbhaba (evolved from Sanskrit, Prakrit and Abahatta), Ardha-Tatsama (phonologically modified Tatsama), Perso-Arabic, Indigenous and recently borrowed items (mainly English).
Of these sources, only Tatsama words should be spelt according to the Sanskrit grammatical rules. Words of other sources use symbols for short vowels (‘i’ দিন, হিম ‘u’ সুর, দুয়ার), long vowels (‘ii’ শীত, বীথি ‘uu’ দূর, দূষিত), syllabic vibrant (‘r’ বর্ণ, স্বর্ণ), sibilants (dental ‘s’ সন্তান, সাধারণ, alveopalatal ‘sh’ ভীষণ, দূষণ, retroflex ‘sh’ স্বাদ, স্বভাব) and nasals (dental ‘n’ বোন, নাম, retroflex ‘n’ বরণ, শ্রাবণ), according to the general convention.
Recent developments allow some of these items to be spelt in a simpler system, avoiding symbols of long vowels, syllabic ‘r’ and retroflex consonants, which has resulted in two parallel spelling systems. Candidates may choose to use either the traditional spelling system or the simpler system. Its use must be consistent through a passage and inconsistency will not be accepted.
- Borrowed words must be transliterated in the simpler spelling system, avoiding long ii, long uu, syllabic r and retroflex consonants (আমদানি, তরকারি).
- Consonant conjuncts: Bangla has more than two hundred consonant conjuncts (compound writing symbols) that represent more than one consonant, but modern printing technology has developed a new form of consonant conjuncts by splitting them into recognisable signs for constituent sounds (সঙ্কল্প/সংকল্প, ভক্তি/ভক্তি). The new development has resulted in two parallel systems. Candidates may choose to use either the traditional conjunct system or the new system. Their use must be consistent throughout a passage. Any inconsistency will not be accepted.
- If an English word/phrase cannot be translated into Bangla or if the use of an English word/phrase is widely accepted in the Bangla language, the English word/phrase can be used in the Bangla text but only in their transliterated forms in Bangla script. It cannot be written in Roman script, e.g., “million”, “monitor”, except for proper names in the source text. These words/symbols can be written in the Roman script when translating them into Bangla.
- Justified insertions are acceptable at the discretion of examiners to clarify certain words. For example, the English word “monitor” does not directly translate into Bangla, as there is no Bangla equivalent for it. An insertion is necessary in Bangla to clarify its meaning.
Candidates are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional formal written form of Burmese following the current standard spelling, punctuation and accentuation rules as published in a current Burmese Dictionary by the Department of the Myanmar Language Commission, the Ministry of Education of the Union of Myanmar or in any other current Myanmar Dictionaries officially published.
Candidates are recommended to use standard Burmese and to prefer Burmese words and terminology over foreign words and terminology. However, Pali words may be used, for example, in a legal domain or in a political context, as long as the Pali words are commonly known to a Burmese speaker and frequently used in the Burmese community.
Candidates should note that when translating names of geographical locations (e.g., Australia) and authorities (e.g., United Nations) from English into Burmese, they should use the established equivalent Burmese terms. However, in instances where no equivalent Burmese terms exist, they are advised to convey the ‘accurate meaning’ or the pronunciation of the term (e.g., Proper English names) into Burmese wherever appropriate and then place the English term in brackets after the translation.
Modern Standard Chinese can be written in two different forms of scripts: the traditional full-form or the simplified form. Candidates for Certified Translator or Certified Advanced Translator tests will not be expected to know both forms of scripts.
For Chinese into English translator tests, candidates will be given the option of translating from or revising traditional full-form or the simplified form test materials. Once a decision is made the whole traditional full-form or the simplified form test must be completed.
For English into Chinese translator tests, Candidates must consistently use either the traditional full form of characters or the officially approved simplified characters. Candidates are not to mix both traditional and simplified characters and use non-standard variant forms of characters.
In romanising Chinese proper names, Candidates must conform either to the Pinyin or Wade-Giles systems. In transliterating Chinese place-names, use may also be made of what is known as the Post-Office system.
Candidates should note that when translating names of geographical locations (e.g., Sydney) and authorities (e.g., UN) from English into Chinese, they should use the standard equivalent Chinese terms. However, in instances where no equivalent Chinese terms exists, they are advised to convey the ‘accurate meaning’ or the pronunciation of the term into Chinese wherever appropriate and then place the English term in brackets after the translation. Examiners will accept this practice only in exceptional circumstances where a Chinese equivalent term does not exist.
In translation tests, standard Croatian is to be used. The language used in texts to be translated from Croatian and into Croatian is standard Croatian, with Ijekavian pronunciation using the Roman-script alphabet. Spelling and orthographical conventions used in texts are to follow normative orthographical guides that have been in use in Croatia over the last 30 years, eg. Hrvatski pravopis (2002) by Milan Moguš, Božidar Finka and Stjepan Babić. (Zagreb: Školska knjiga) or Hrvatski pravopis (2014), published by the Institute for Croatian language and linguistics (Zagreb: Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje).
In terms of vocabulary and lexicon, those forms found in authoritative dictionaries such as the Rječnik hrvatskoga jezika (2002) by Jure Šonje (Ed.) (Zagreb: Leksikografski zavod Miroslav Krleža) or the Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika (2003 – 4th edition) by Vladimir Anić (Zagreb: Novi Liber) are to be used. Terms identified in these dictionaries as being specific to particular dialects or regions are to be avoided. Grammatical and semantic expression used in translation tests should, in general, conform to normative guidelines such as: Hrvatski jezični savjetnik (1999) by Eugenija Barić et al. (Eds.) (Zagreb: Institut za hrvatski jezik I jezikoslovlje).
In translation texts, neither source texts nor target texts should contain dialectal forms that are specific to one area or region, and which are unknown in others.
Candidates’ use of Croatian in written form should include the use of diacritic symbols. It is not acceptable to omit the diacritic symbols and omissions will be marked as orthographical mistakes.
In line with Australian government policy, NAATI treats Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian as different languages, each with its own characteristics. Consequently, no tests are held in the Serbo-Croatian language.
All NAATI candidates, while doing the test, are advised to observe the following:
- As a candidate, you are expected to translate into non-dialectal, non-regional formal Dari.
- When translating official organization names for which an official Dari name exists, the candidate should use the Dari translation. For example, UN (سازمانرمللرمتحد ); IOM (سازمانرب ن یرالمللیرمهاجرت ), ATO (ادارهرمالیات ). The candidate may also use the English word first and its Dari translation in brackets.
- For common Australian institution and organization names such as Centrelink, Medicare etc., the preferred way of translation is to use the English word.
- Transliteration of English words such as “online”, “app”, “download” are recommended as “آنلاین ”, “آپ ” and “دانلود ” respectively.
- • Proper English names should be written in Dari. For instance: Mark (مارک ) and Mary (ماری ).
- Sometimes, two Dari words can be written as a single word by combining them. For instance,ر
- wordsر“می”رandر“کند ”رas “میکن ر د ” or words “شب ” and “ها ” as “شبها ”. Both variants are acceptable and will not be penalized.
- Some Dari words are written in the Arabic format or its Dari format; although the Dari format is preferred but if a candidate uses the Arabic format, it is acceptable. For example:
The preferred/correct way writing plural format of the word “گناه ” is “گناهرها ” while it is also commonly written as “گناهان ” which should not be penalized. Similarly, both formats for some Dari words such as “ام رئاطور ” or “ام رئاتور ” ; and “پطرول ” or “پ رئول ” etc. are acceptable.
- Some widely used modern technical words such as “iPad” or “app” can be kept unchanged from the source-language text. Other English words such as “like” or “file” maybe translated as “لایک ” and “فایل ” respectively.
- Proper names must be capitalized. For example: The United Nations (سازمانرمللرمتحد ), Sony Company (ر شکترسو ن نر ) etc
NAATI Certified Translator tests are usually set in an Australian context. Therefore, English tasks are presented in the Australian English variant in terms of spelling, grammar, punctuation, lexicon and language use.
Candidates can use Australian, British, American and other variants of English in their translation test, provided that the variant is used consistently throughout a task. For example, the use of both ‘footpath’ and ‘sidewalk’ in the same text would be unacceptable because the former term is used in Australian English while the latter term is an American variant. If variants are used inconsistently, then examiners will assess on the basis of the Australian variant.
For information about the Australian variant, please refer to the current editions of the Macquarie Dictionary and the Australian Government Style Manual: For Authors, Editors and Printers
A Filipino translation is required to be written in Filipino, as defined in the Commission on the Filipino Language Act 1991. The translation can include words from other languages if these words are already included in the latest Filipino Language Dictionary “Diksyonaryo ng Wikang Filipino” which is published by the Commission of the Filipino Language. Coining or inventing words, as well as the use of slang words, will not be accepted in the translation.
As much as possible all English words including proper nouns (but excluding personal names, acronyms and proper names of establishments with no language equivalent, such as “Medicare”, “Centrelink”) should be translated into Filipino. If there is no equivalent in Filipino, translation should be based on meaning. Transliterating or adapting English words will only be accepted in cases where a translation would be too cumbersome and the adapted word is already in popular use e.g. “pag-charge (ng baterya)”, “mobile phone”, “kompyuter”, etc.
Spelling is to be standardised and must follow the spelling rules as set out in the manual published by the Commission of the Filipino Language “KWF Manwal sa Masinop na Pagsulat 2014”.
Grammar, punctuation and sentence structure must also adhere to the correct Filipino grammar as explained in the Manual of National Language Grammar published by the Commission: “KWF Balarila ng Wikang Pambansa 2019”. Sentences with the ‘ay’ marker (formal sentence structure), as well as without ‘ay’ (informal sentence structure) are both acceptable in a translation.
The Academy of the French language (Académie française) dictates the rules and standards of the usages, vocabulary, and grammar of the French language; it indicates the correct orthography for each word and determines whether a term is acceptable in French or not, e.g. neologisms, solecisms, barbarisms, use of English words and gender considerations, among others. The Académie française also recommends using the new spelling rules specified in “Les rectifications de l’orthographe” (1990); however it recognises both old and new spelling forms as correct and ac- ceptable. For the purpose of the NAATI test, both forms are accepted. Candidates should however remain consistent with the spelling rule they opt for, e.g. if they decide to use “portemonnaie” instead of “porte-monnaie”, each occurrence of the term should follow the same spelling form.
Test candidates are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional French. Country-specific terms can be used but to a very limited extent, e.g. numbers such as nonante instead of quatre-vingt-dix by Belgian or Swiss speakers would be accepted.
Candidates should note that when translating names of authorities (e.g. UN agencies) for which there is an official translation into French, they should use the standard equivalent in French.
For translator certification tests NAATI expects French candidates to adhere to the above rules and standards.
Standard German (also referred to as Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardised variety of the German language used in both formal contexts and for communication between different dialect areas.
Regarding the spelling and punctuation in Certified Translator tests, NAATI accepts the standard recommended by the Council for German Orthography which represents the governments of all majority and minority German-speaking countries and dependencies. The basics are DUDEN. Die deutsche Rechtschreibung“ (as of the 24th edition, 2006) and WAHRIG. Die deutsche Rechtschreibung“ (editions as of 2006).
Standard terminology, grammar and punctuation adopted by the Academy of the Hebrew Language will be accepted. Terms in common use, although not formally adopted, will also be accepted.
Spelling. Both k’tiv maleh and k’tiv haser (e.g. צוהריים or צהריים) spellings will be accepted, but should be used consistently. Inappropriate letter additions (e.g. מימני instead of ממני) will be marked as an error.
Use a standard Hebrew language font that supports Unicode.
The use of English terms
Many adopted or adapted English terms are used commonly in Hebrew (for example, drag- דראג, multimedia- ,מולטימדיה paramedic- פרמדיק, flashback- פלשבק, rational- רציונל etc.). Such English terms are commonly used in the public domain (e.g. in the media, not confined to academia or professional jargon use), and recognised by most Hebrew speakers, are acceptable. These should be written using Hebrew letters. English terms in the source text that are not commonly used in the public domain and have no direct equivalent in Hebrew can also be used, accompanied by a transliteration and explanation if required.
English terms may be given using English letters once, followed by the term transliterated into Hebrew. From then on only the Hebrew transliteration should be used.
- The Devanagari script is used in the Hindi source text for the Translator test into English
- For the translator test into Hindi, applicants should use standard Hindi Khadi Boli (खड़ी बोली) written in the Devanagari script. Provincial or regional variations and non-standard usage will not be accepted.
- As translation is meant for written documents, use of formal and official Hindi words (i.e. no colloquial words) as per the genre and register is expected.
- Urdu words for which Hindi words are available will not be accepted. Use of Urdu words may be accepted only if there is no commonly used standard Hindi equivalent word available and the Urdu word used is understood by most Hindi readers and speakers (for example, दस्तावेज़, मुद्दा). Where the Urdu word is written with a नुक़्ता, omission of नुक़्ता will not be accepted.
- Transliteration of English words for which a Hindi equivalent exists will not be accepted. Candidates are expected to use संयुक्त राष्ट्र संघ for युनाइटेड नेशन्स (“United Nations”), काली खाँसी for हूपिंग कफ़ (“whooping cough”).
- Where Hindi words are uncommon or unavailable, English words can be transliterated in Hindi (for example, “online” as ऑनलाइन or “passport” as पासपोर्ट).
- Some proper nouns may contain a common noun. In such cases, it is acceptable to use a Hindi word for translating the common noun and transliterate the rest of the proper noun (for example, “University of Sydney” can be written as सिडनी विश्वविद्यालय, “Monash Library” can be written as मोनाश पुस्तकालय).
- Hindi words that should be written with a चंद्रबिंदु, बिंदु और अर्द्धचंद्र (for example, आँख, कंठ, ऑस्ट्रेलिया) should not be written without चंद्रबिंदु, बिंदु और अर्द्धचंद्र and will not be accepted if these are omitted.
- Scientific and technical terms: English words referring to recent technologies and medicine which are widely adopted in the Hindi language can be transliterated in Hindi where Hindi words are uncommon or unavailable (for example, “CT scan” as सी टी स्कैन, “mobile phone” as मोबाइल फ़ोन).
- Numbers: candidates must be able to comprehend small and large numbers written in English and Hindi. They must be able to convert “hundred thousand”, “million” and “billion” into लाख, करोड़ and अरब and vice versa.
देवनागरी लिपि तथा हिन्दी वर्तनी का मानकीकरण (Devanagari Lipi and Hindi Vartani ka Mankikaran) is available free of charge on the internet. It is published by the Central Hindi Directorate, New Delhi, an organisation responsible for providing acceptable standard for Hindi. This publication can help in learning the correct and acceptable spellings of Hindi script.
In translation tests, candidates are expected to use standard, contemporary Hungarian. Translations into Hungarian should not contain dialectal forms that are specific to one area or region, but unknown in others.
Grammar, expression and orthographical conventions used in translations are to follow normative guides published in the A magyar helyesírás szabályai, 12. kiadás (Akadémiai Kiadó, 2015) and the Magyar helyesírási szótár (Akadémiai Kiadó, 2017).
The use of vocabulary and lexicon should be in accordance with authoritative dictionaries such as Magyar értelmező kéziszótár (Akadémiai Kiadó, 2009) or A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959-1962; digitised versions of this text are available online).
Candidates are expected to add to their translations diacritical marks to form the characters á, é, í, ó, ö, ő, ú, ü, ű which are part of the Hungarian alphabet. Omitting diacritics or using them incorrectly will be considered as orthographical errors by markers.
Where official Hungarian translations are customarily used for non-Hungarian place names, geographical names, acronyms and names of organisations (e.g. government departments or agencies), the corresponding Hungarian names should be used in translations into Hungarian. For example, the Department of Home Affairs should be translated as az ausztrál belügyminisztérium. However, words like Centrelink, Medicare and ATO can be used in the English form as they do not have direct equivalents in Hungarian.
In addition, for assessment purposes the vocabulary and usages produced by candidates sitting a translator certification test from English to Indonesian should be clearly Indonesian and not Malay, in any instances where there is a significant difference between the two.
Candidates sitting the Italian CT test are expected to use the standard written form of the Italian language, its standard spelling and accentuation rules.
As a point of reference in this regard, the Accademia della Crusca is the most prestigious authority on the Italian language. As well as having a dedicated role in research on the Italian language, it is also responsible for indicating the correct orthography for each word and determines whether a term is acceptable in Italian or not. To this end, candidates are also advised to consult the Treccani dictionary, published by the Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana and universally accepted as the most authoritative Italian language dictionary.
The use of some English words in Italian is acceptable where these words are commonly used by native Italian speakers and are part of the lexicon, e.g., il computer, lo spread (economics).
Candidates should note that when translating names of authorities (e.g. UN agencies and inter- national organisations) for which there is an official or conventional translation into Italian, they should use the standard equivalent in Italian, e.g., the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-oper- ation and Development) in Italian is known as l’OCSE – L’Organizzazione per la cooperazione e lo sviluppo economico.
For translator certification tests NAATI expects Japanese candidates to adhere to the above rules and standards.
- For spelling, the Khmer Dictionary (1967), compiled by Samdech Preah Sangreach Chuon Nath and published by the Buddhist Institute; the Khmer Spelling Dictionary (2005), published by the Institute of National Language, Royal Academy of Cambodia; and the current edition of the Dictionary of Contemporary Khmer, published by the Royal Academy of Cambodia and the Cambodian Ministry of Economy and Finance.
- For grammar, candidates should comply with Khmer grammar conventions outlined in the Khmer Grammar Book for secondary education and general use, compiled and published in 2018 by the Committee for Linguistics, National Council of Khmer Language, Council of Ministers; and Khmer Grammar Book for secondary education complied by Dr. Nov Sun and published in 2013 by Publishing and Distribution House of Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport.
Khmer spelling has been influenced by both English and French orthographies. The word “Victoria,” for example, can be rendered as either រដ្ឋវ៉ិចតូរីយ៉ា or រដ្ឋវិកថូរៀ. Both conventions are accepted in NAATI translation tests, however candidates must use one convention consistently.
Terms borrowed from English can be ambiguous when translated or transliterated into Khmer. To account for this ambiguity, candidates should translate technical terms and transliterate proper nouns into Khmer but leave the English in brackets. For example: “ជំងឺអូទីហ្សឹម (autism)”; “ជំងឺភ្លេចភ្លាំង (dementia)”; “ហិនរី ជេកូប (Henry Jacobs)”. The same convention should be followed for new terms for which there is no obvious translation into Khmer (e.g. “travel bubble”, “buddy bubble”).
English words, and in some cases words from other languages, are regularly and commonly used and widely understood. Where this is the case, candidates will not be penalised for using a foreign language word, even if a Korean word could have been used to describe or express the same information.
Candidates should follow the most recent Rules of the Korean Language (한글 맞춤법), including spelling, spacing, and punctuation rules, which can be found on the website of the National Institute of Korean Language (국립국어원, www.korean.go.kr)
Candidates are expected to understand the basic rules of spacing. However, it is sometimes difficult to apply the spacing rules of the Korean language to specific words or elements. In such cases, the examiner may show leniency, provided that the spacing error does not distort the intended meaning of a word or element.
Standard Macedonian must be used in translation tests. This means that the Cyrillic-script alphabet is to be used in texts that are to be translated into Macedonian.
Spelling and Orthography
Spelling and orthographical conventions used in translations are to follow normative orthographical guides that are in use in Macedonia. Acceptable guides are considered materials published by leading Macedonian language institutions such as the Institute of Macedonian Language “Krste Misirkov”, Skopje. For example, Правопис на македонскиот јазик (2017), second edition.
Use of Diacritic Symbols
Candidates’ use of Macedonian in written form should include the use of diacritic symbols. It is not acceptable to omit the diacritic symbols and omissions will be marked as orthographical mistakes.
Vocabulary and Lexicon
In terms of vocabulary and lexicon, those forms found in authoritative dictionaries such as Толковен речник на македонскиот јазик (2002) by the Institute of Macedonian Language “Krste Misirkov” – Skopje, Routledge Macedonian-English Dictionary, Australian National University, English-Macedonian Dictionary by Olga Miseska-Tomic, may be used. Terms identified in these dictionaries as being specific to particular dialects or regions are to be avoided. Grammatical and semantic expression used in translation tests should, in general, conform to normative guidelines such as those contained in Граматика на македонскиот литературен јазик 1967 (1953) by Blaze Koneski published by “Kultura” Skopje.
In addition, for assessment purposes the vocabulary and usages produced by candidates sitting a translator certification test from English to Malay should be clearly Malay and not Indonesian, in any instances where there is a significant difference between the two.
Where a translation from English to Malay uses an excessive number of English loan-words in circumstances where Malay words are readily available and widely known, such loan-words may not be accepted. However, where an English loan-word is widely used and recognised by Malay speakers (for instance, recent technological terminology), its use may be accepted.
- Devanagari script is used in Nepali language source and target translation text.
- Nepali language should be written in Devanagari script using a compatible font Preeti or Unicode font Mangal, Kokila, or Nirmala UI.
- It is the responsibility of the candidate to familiarise themselves with the Nepali language keyboard and set it up in their device for the test.
- Standard Nepali language with formal register should be used. Ethnic, regional and provincial dialectal forms will not be accepted.
- नेपाली बृहत् शब्दकोश, नेपाल प्रज्ञा–प्रतिष्ठान (Comprehensive Nepali Dictionary by Nepal Pragya Pratisthan) is the official language reference resource.
- Some variation of words with nasal sound such as ं ँ ञ्, ण् न्, म् will be accepted. For example: अंक –अङ्क, मनोरंजन- मनोरञ्जन, अंडा –अण्डा, मंद- मन्द, कंपन- कम्पन, तपाई- तपाईं -तपाइँ
Use of English terms
- Transliterating or adapting English words will only be accepted in cases where a language equivalent is not available, translation would be too cumbersome and the adapted word is already in popular use;
- For certain English proper nouns (for example, personal names, acronyms, brand names and proper names of organisations) where the Nepali equivalent does not exist or is uncommon, transliteration followed by the English term placed in the brackets will be accepted. Since such terms are written arbitrarily in Nepali in terms of spelling or abbreviations, such variations will be accepted. For example, मेडिकेयर/मेडीकेअर (Medicare), ए.टि.ओ./एटीओ (ATO), “एक्स.वाइ. ज्वेलर्स” (“XY Jewellers”), चाइना/चाईना (China), डाईबिटिज् अष्ट्रेलिया (Diabetes Australia), एप/एयाप स्टोर (App Store);
- For certain English common nouns where the Nepali equivalent does not exist or is uncommon, the English term and transliteration followed by a brief description in brackets will be accepted. For example, salad-सलाद/ स्यालड़ (चिसो/काँचो खाने सागपात), degree-डिग्री (शैक्षिक उपाधि).
- For certain medical and technical terms, where the Nepali equivalent does not exist or is uncommon, transliteration followed by the English term placed in the brackets will be accepted. For example, एक्स-रे (X-ray), 38 degrees-३८ डिग्री (तापक्रम मापन);
The Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستانرزبانرورادبرفارسی ) formerly known as the Academy of Iran (فرهنگستانرایران ) is the official regulatory body of the Persian language.رIt sets the rules and standards of the usage, vocabulary and grammar of the Persian language; it indicates the correct orthography of each word and determines if a word is acceptable in the Persian language or not.
NAATI expect the candidates for a CT/CAT test into Persian to observe the following rules as well:
- As test candidates, you are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional formal Persian
- You need to write English names in Persian alphabet using Persian phonetics as a general guideline, e.g. John = جان or Claudia = کلودیا . If unsure, you may add the English form in brackets.
- Long vowel alif (الفرممدوده ) must have the symbol of length on it. For example: آنهار–رآیا
- The following signs may or may not be used:
- Tashdid (تشدید ): Do not repeat the letter instead of tashdid. For example: نججار is incorrect.
- Sokoun (سکون ): is not necessary in Persian.
- Short ya (یایرکوتاه ): You can use either (ی) or (ء) For example: همهری is also accepted.
- Tanvin (تنوین ): Do not replace it with “Noon”. For example: قطعن is incorrect
Note: If you choose to use Arabic words, the Arabic rules of dictation must be observed
- “به ” must be written separately as in “بهرنام ”, “بهرخاطر ”
- “ها ” as a sign of plural may be written attached to or separate from any noun except for foreign nouns where it must be written separately such as (کمونیسترها , لی رئالرها ).
- If there are two dictation forms for one word, both of them are acceptable only if theyرrefer to and mean the same thing. For example: (اتو /اطو , اتاق /اطاق ).
- Candidates should note that when translating names of geographical locations (e.g. Sydney) or other nouns from English into Persian, they should use the standard equivalent Persian terms. However, in instances where no equivalent terms exist, they are advised to convey the ‘accurate meaning’ or the pronunciation of the term into Persian wherever appropriate and then place the English term in brackets after the translation. Examiners will accept this practice only in exceptional circumstances where a Persian equivalent does not exist. Example: Fast food (غذایرحا ن ضی )
- Candidates should note that when translating names of authorities (e.g. UN agencies and international organisations) for which there is an official or conventional translation into Persian, they should use the standard equivalent in Persian, e.g., the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) in Persian is known as (سازمانرتوسعهرهمکاریراقتصادی ).
- The use of punctuation (؟!،.) is very important. The candidates are required to use the Persian style of punctuation in their work.
Applicants should be aware that NAATI adheres to the Portuguese Language Orthographic Agreement of 1990 (Acordo Ortográfico da Língua Portuguesa de 1990), which was ratified by some countries including Brazil and Portugal. This agreement acknowledges common orthographies, that is, recognition of one language with agreeable variations in spellings.
Applicants must use one regional variety consistently (including grammar and vocabulary) and inconsistencies will be penalised.
NAATI Punjabi tests are delivered in Punjabi (Eastern) using Gurumukhi script as used in India. NAATI tests are not available in Punjabi (Western) using Shahmukhi script as used in Pakistan. Applicants more proficient in this language should consider Recognised Practising Translator Credentials.
Certified Translator test from Punjabi into English: CTE
- The Gurmukhi script is used in the Punjabi source text.
- Test candidates are expected to translate into non-dialectical, non-regional Punjabi and should use standard Punjabi in their translations.
- If a figure is provided in lakhs or crores in Punjabi it must be converted to thousands and millions in English.
Certified Translator test from English into Punjabi: CTO
- Applicants are expected to use the Gurmukhi script when translating from English into Punjabi. The use of other scripts (e.g. Shahmukhi) will be penalised.
- Candidate needs to use RAAVI Punjabi font so that markers can easily read it.
- English numerals are commonly used in the Punjabi language. Therefore, it is acceptable for applicants to use English numerals in their translations.
- English words referring to recent technologies, e.g. iPad, which are widely adopted in the Punjabi language can be transliterated in Punjabi.
Test candidates are expected to translate into the non-dialectical and non-regional standard Russian.
Candidates should follow the rules set in Розенталь Д. Э., Джанджакова Е. В., Кабанова Н. П. Справочник по правописанию, произношению, литературному редактированию (A Manual on Spelling, Pronunciation and Literary Editing by D.E. Rozental, E.V. Dzhandzhakova and N.P. Kabanova) and in Зализняк А. А. Грамматический словарь русского языка. Словоизменение. (A Grammar Dictionary of the Russian Language. Word Modification. by A.A. Zaliznyak) or any other relevant resource approved by Институт русского языка имени В. В. Виноградова Российской академии наук (V.V. Vinogradov Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences).
Candidates can use spelling, grammatical and word variations approved by the above-mentioned Russian Language Institute (e.g. neutral gender for «кофе» («чёрное кофе») instead of masculine («чёрный кофе»), or any of the word equivalents («прото́к», «прото́ка»), as long as they do it consistently throughout the text.
Candidates should note that when translating names of authorities for which there is an official Russian translation, they should use the latter. For companies and brand names they can choose between transliterating them into Cyrillic or retaining the Latin script, as long as they do it consistently throughout the text.
The Samoan Language Commission has not yet determined official conventions for the spelling of the Samoan language. In a NAATI translation test, candidates are permitted either to omit all diacritical marks (macrons, glottal stops, etc.) or to use them consistently. This policy may be revised when the Language Commission announces official conventions.
Candidates should be mindful of the influence of English on the Samoan language and avoid Anglicisms such as adding ‘s’ for plurals (e.g. “tama(s)” is not the correct plural of “tama”) and combining prepositions (e.g. “i le” and “o le” should be separate).
Where a common lexical equivalent exists, candidates should use the Samoan word(s) before transliterating or otherwise adapting English words. Words borrowed from English and used in Samoan translation tests must be appropriate to the register and context of the text. These words should also reflect their level of usage in Samoan (e.g. “anoresitia nevosa” will not be accepted as the translation of “anorexia nervosa”, but “terorisi” will be accepted as the translation for “terrorist”/“terrorism”).
The language used in Serbian source texts is standard Serbian, and candidates are to use standard Serbian in their translations from English.
Standard Serbian has two spoken and therefore written forms: екавски (ekavian) and ијекавски (ijekavian). Candidates may use either form, as long as they do this consistently throughout the text.
Serbian Cyrillic will be used in the Serbian source texts, and candidates must use the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet for translations into Serbian.
Spelling and Orthography
Spelling and orthographic conventions used in texts are to follow normative orthographical guides which are in use in Serbia. Acceptable guides include e.g. Правописни речник српског језика са правописно-граматичким саветником (2011) by Milan Šipka, published by Prometej, Novi Sad, and Правопис српског језика (2018 – 3rd Edition) by Mitar Pešikan, Jovan Jerković and Mato Pižurica, published by Matica srpska, Novi Sad.
Candidates should use existing formally accepted Serbian translations or transcriptions for source text place names and toponyms (e.g. Сиднеј for Sydney), organisations (e.g. Црвени крст for Red Cross), acronyms (e.g. НАТО for NATO, however ОЕБС for the OSCE), countries (e.g. Нови Зеланд for New Zealand, however Њујорк for New York), government departments (e.g. Министарство спољних послова и трговине for the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade), companies and brand names (e.g. Пежо for Peugeot).
Vocabulary and Lexicon
Terms which are found in authoritative dictionaries, such as Речник српскога језика (2011), edited by Miroslav Nikolić and published by Matica srpska, Novi Sad, may be used. Terms identified in these dictionaries as being specific to particular dialects or regions are to be avoided. Foreign words and expressions which are found in authoritative reference books, such as Лексикон страних речи и израза (any edition) by Milan Vujaklija and published by various publishers, may be used.
Grammar and expression used in translation tests should, in general, conform to normative guidelines such as those contained in e.g. Нормативна граматика српског језика (2017) by Predrag Piper and Ivan Klajn, published by Matica srpska, Novi Sad. In translation texts, neither source texts nor target texts should contain dialectal forms which are specific to one area or region, and which are unknown in others.
Candidates should note:
- There may be some different words used in different regions in Sri Lanka to define the meaning of same words, but this is insignificant, and the meaning of those words are easily identifiable.
- Commonly accepted and widely used English abbreviations can be used, e.g., UNESCO යුනෙස්කෝව -එක්සත් ජාතීන්ගේ අධ්යාපන, විද්යාත්මක සහ සංස්කෘතික සංවිධානය, NASA නාසා සංවිධානය, OECD, NATO UNHCR etc.
- In Sinhalese language, there are two forms, spoken and written Sinhalese. Candidates are expected to write in Written Sinhalese for their translation tests.
The Royal Academy of the Spanish Language (Real Academia Española), in agreement with the Association of Academies of the Spanish Language, dictates the rules and standards of the Spanish language; it indicates the correct orthography for each word and determines whether the term is acceptable Spanish or not, e.g. neologisms, solecisms or barbarisms.
For translator certification tests NAATI expects Spanish candidates to adhere to these rules and standards.
Avoid using dialectal forms which are specific to one area or region, and which are unknown in others. Candidates need to take special care when using region-specific words which could have different meanings in Standard Swahili, such as “kuuza”, “kutumika” and “magharibi”.
Spelling variants that are commonly in use are accepted (e.g. wafanyikazi/wafanyakazi, kushtaki/kushitaki).
Candidates should note that when translating English names of geographical locations (e.g. Lake Victoria) and authorities (e.g. United Nations) into Swahili, they should use the established equivalent Swahili terms and spelling where these are available.
Tamil language has two forms, high register and low register. NAATI candidates are expected to write in a high register for their translation tests.
Spoken speech reported as a quotation within inverted commas (“”) that forms a colloquial style of language can be written in low register.
The candidates are expected to perform their test electronically and use an Open Type font based on Uni-Code when typing in Tamil script. Uni-Code font ‘Vijaya’ is preferred.
Commonly accepted and widely used English abbreviations can be used as they are.
Examples: DHHA, COVID, UN, ABF etc
4. Scientific and Technical Terms
Scientific and technical terminology used commonly will be used in the test materials. However, candidates are free to use any terminology that is in usage in any Tamil-speaking region. If there is no equivalent word in Tamil language, the candidates are allowed to use the English word.
Example: Ozone, ஓசோன்
5. Use of English Words
Word level English usage is accepted when there is no exact term or expression in Tamil for an English word.
Common words in usage such as car, bus, coffee and visa can be written as கார், பஸ், காபி மற்றும் வீசா.
6. Tamil Spelling Variants
Some Tamil words are spelt differently when written depending on the region. Spelling variants that are commonly in use are accepted.
Example: வறட்சி – வரட்சி, கருப்பு – கறுப்பு, சிகப்பு – சிவப்பு, காபி – கோப்பி
Transliterating proper nouns including geographical names should be followed using the commonly prevalent pattern. However, consistency must be maintained throughout the translation.
Australia: ஆஸ்திரேலியா / அவுஸ்திரேலியா.
Oxygen: ஆக்சிஜன் / ஒட்சிசன்
Carbon: கார்பன் / காபண்
Centrelink: செண்டர்லிங்க் / சென்ரலின்க்
8. Grantha Scripts and Reformed Format
Usage of Grantha scripts ( ஜ, ஷ, ஸ, ஹ, க்ஷ, ஸ்ரீ ) in Tamil language is allowed.
The candidate is expected to maintain consistency throughout the translation.
If the candidate chooses to translate in a reformed format, consistency of that format must be maintained.
லக்ஷ்மி, ஸ்ரீ, ஷாந்தி (Grantha script in usage)
இலக்குமி, சிறி, சாந்தி (Reformed format)
The candidates are expected to use only the decimal numeral system when translating from English to Tamil.
Example: 1, 2, 3, 77, 309
Lakhs and Crores can be accepted to denote numerical values.
The value should be calculated correctly.
100,000 = 1 lakh, 1 million = 10 lakhs, 10 million = 1 crore
English to Thai
Language Variants: Candidates must use Central (non-regional) Thai. The use of regional variants will not be accepted. The Royal Institute Dictionary should be consulted for the correct spelling of Thai words.
The use of English words in Thai: Candidates are encouraged to minimise the use of English words except where the relevant terminology is formally accepted or widely used in the Thai language. Some examples of English terms that are formally accepted for use in Thai are นิวเคลียร์, โปรแกรม and คอมพิวเตอร์. Terms that are widely used include, for example, อัปโหลด, เว็บไซต์ and พาสปอร์ต.
When translating into Thai, the use of English terms, whether formally accepted or widely used, must also be appropriate to the register. For example, ร้อยละ is more appropriate in a more formal register than เปอร์เซ็นต์. Similarly, ธนาคาร is more appropriate in a formal setting than แบงก์.
Names and Proper Nouns: When translating into Thai, use the established version for proper nouns e.g. แอฟริกา (as opposed to อาฟริกา) or มาเลเซีย (as opposed to มาเลเชีย). If there is no established version, transliterate or transcribe the name and provide the English term in parentheses (e.g. พาราเบอร์ดู (Paraburdoo)).
The names of organisations should be translated where appropriate followed by the respective English terms and acronyms (if any) in parentheses (e.g. กรมขนส่ง (Department of Transport), สภากาชาด (Red Cross)). If a translated term is in existence in common or official use, it should be adopted (e.g. องค์การอนามัยโลก rather than องค์การสุขภาพโลก for the World Health Organization).
Thai to English
Names and Proper Nouns: When transcribing Thai proper nouns into English, adopt the existing version in common or official use where available. If there is none, candidates should follow the Royal Thai General System of Transcription (e.g. use Pattaya as opposed to Phatthaya).
Candidates should use the correct Tongan diacritics (fakau’a, toloi and stress marks) when spelling words. There is however an understanding that many electronic keyboards are not fully equipped with the sign for the long accent (toloi), which can therefore be replaced with double vowels. Whichever approach is taken, it should be used consistently throughout the translation.
Candidates should refer to the Tongan Dictionary (Tongan-English and English-Tongan) by C. Maxwell Churchward (recent edition) for spelling and terminology. Some recent terms (for example regarding the latest technology or social developments) may not be present in the latest edition, and in these cases candidates should follow standard accepted practice
Candidates should respect and use the different dialects applicable to the King, Nobility and Commoners. Words borrowed from English must be appropriate to the register and context of the text and Tongan words should be preferred when these are widely used and easily available. It may be appropriate to keep some English names in their original form (eg. certain government institutions such as Centrelink) when there is no commonly used and understood equivalent in Tongan.
Candidates sitting for the Turkish Certified Translator test are expected to use the standard, non-di- alectal, non-regional written form of the Turkish language, complete rules of its standard spelling, punctuation form and accentuation.
Türk Dil Kurumu [The Turkish Language Institution] is the reference point in this regard. It is the authority to determine whether a word/ a term/ spelling/ usage are acceptable in Turkish or not.
It should be noted by the candidates that when names of authorities are translated (e.g. Australian Departments, International organizations) for which there is an official or conventional translation in Turkish, the standard Turkish equivalent must be used (e.g., EU European Union= Avrupa Birliği, NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization= Kuzey Atlantik Anlaşması Örgütü, Department of Home Affairs= İçişleri Bakanlığı).
For Translator Certification tests, NAATI expects Turkish candidates to adhere to the above rules and standards.
NAATI Urdu tests are delivered in Urdu as used in Pakistan.
Candidates are expected to use current standards for the Urdu script and grammar. Archaic or uncommon usage may be penalised.
The transliteration of English terms in Urdu may be appropriate and/or necessary in some contexts, for instance, for household appliances, medical or other technical terms that do not have adequate equivalents in the Urdu language. The unnecessary or inappropriate use of English words will be penalised.
Numerical concepts i.e. “29, millions, billions etc.” should be translated.
Candidates are expected to use the correct gender verbs for Urdu nouns, regardless of whether these nouns refer to living things. The use of incorrect gender verbs will be penalised.
Candidates are expected to use the correct spellings of words.
Test candidates are expected to translate into non-regional Vietnamese, using the Vietnamese modern writing system.
For translator certification tests NAATI expects Vietnamese candidates to adhere to the above rules and standards.